Functional verification is a very effort intensive and heuristic process which aims at confirming that system functionalities are meeting the given specifications. While pushing cycle-time improvement on the back-end part of this process is closely tied to the compute-box selection (CPU speed, memory capacity, parallelism option), the front-end involves many painstaking setup preparation and coding. As such, any automation and incremental checks on the quality of work for both the design and the embedded codes used for its verification should help prevent unnecessary iterations and shorten the overall front-end setup time.
UVM Register Generator
Register Abstraction Layer (RAL) was part of the Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) supported features introduced in 2011. It provides a high-level abstraction for manipulating the content of registers in your design. All of the addresses and bit fields can get replaced with human readable names. RAL attempts to mirror the values of the design registers in the testbench, so one could use the register model to access those registers. A RAL model comprises fields grouped into registers, which along with memories can be grouped into blocks or eventually grouped into systems.
Aldec’s Riviera-PRO™ verification platform enables testbench productivity, reusability, and automation by combining the high-performance simulation engine, advanced debugging capabilities at different levels of abstraction. In its latest release (2018.02), it introduces RAL support.
As illustrated in figure 1a RAL model automatic generation involves taking the register specifications of a design (Riviera-PRO supports either IP-XACT or CSV spreadsheet formats) and generates the equivalent register model in System Verilog code.
To better appreciate how this register model is used in the UVM environment, consider how it interacts with the rest of components in the verification ecosystem as illustrated in figure 1b.
The creation of register model is normally followed by the creation of an adapter in the agent, which makes abstraction possible. It acts as a bridge between the model and the lower levels. Its function is to convert register model transactions to the lower level bus transactions and vice versa. The predictor
receives information from the monitor such that changes in values in the registers of the DUT are passed back to the register model.
As register model is captured at a higher level of abstraction, it does not require knowing either the targeted protocol or the register type to be accessed. Hence, from the testbench point of view, one can directly access the registers by name, without having to know where and what they are. Instead, the Register Model stores the details of all the registers, their types as well as their locations. It is the responsibility of the RAL to convert these abstracted accesses into read and write cycles at the appropriate addresses and using bus functional model. This convenient approach also makes tests to be more reusable.
Another component in the ecosystem is the sequencing part as shown in figure 1c. Sequences are built to house any register access method calls or Access Procedural Interface (API’s). Users may categorize these API’s into three types: active (read, write, mirror), passive (set, reset, get, predict) or indirect (peek, poke). The registers are referenced hierarchically in the body task to call write() and read(). The commands peek() and poke() which are utilized for individual field accesses.
Linting is a prerequisite for good coding practice. It is common to have this done at the end of system code completion prior to checking-in the release. Unit linting which was previously done as stand-alone from Active-HDL Workspace, has been integrated as part of Riviera-PRO User Interface. Launching unit linting from this Riviera-PRO dashboard can be done through selecting a new button that will run unit linting on the open file and display the violations back on the console. This integration lets designer to work on a design, do the simulations as well as run linting from the same interface. It provides cross-probing facility that cross reference the violation versus the affected line of code as illustrated in figure 2.
Productivity Improvements and Partial Support to VHDL 2018
Code elaboration takes time as well as memory. In this Riviera-PRO release memory footprint during elaboration is reduced by as much as 80%, while improvement in simulation speed of 25% is noted for System Verilog constraint random design and up to 10x faster for assertion based designs with multi-clocks.
Proactive partial support is also available to the VHDL 2018 extension, which is going through the formalization process. This includes handling the conditional analysis directives and inferring constraints from initial values of signals and variables.
Furthermore, less restrictions were imposed on handling these constructs:
– Optional component keyword after the end keyword closing component declaration
– Denoting the end of the interface list with an optional semicolon sign.
– Allowing empty record declarations or qualified expressions or signatures of formal generic subprograms in a generic association list.
I had the chance to talk with Louie De Luna, Aldec Director of Marketing to further comment on these recent updates.
Would the corresponding System Verilog codes automatically generated for the register models and their associated adapters correct-by-construction or need to be validated?
We generate the UVM-RAL from user’s provided spreadsheet (*.csv). Successful generation is highly dependent on the input quality. Once generated, it is correct-by-construction. The users do not need to review it and they can easily attach it on their testbench.
Can designers skip those units already passed unit linting when they do full design linting?
Unit linting provides facility to conveniently perform code checks while it is being constructed. Unit linting may have simpler rules compares with the full linting that requires different ruleset. Designers have option to include or exclude particular checks. Linting is good, but since too many rules may clutter the process these filtering options should help.
What reference point used for performance comparison and any plan to extend beyond this supported list when VHDL 2018 ?
The comparison made for Riviera-PRO 2018.02 release is with respect to 2017.10. We plan to fully support when the VHDL 2018 is formally published.
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