Toshiba Cost Model for 3D NAND

Toshiba Cost Model for 3D NAND
by Fred Chen on 10-11-2020 at 8:00 am

Toshiba Cost Model for 3D NAND

Toshiba (now known as Kioxia) was the first company to propose a 3D stacked version of NAND Flash memory called BICS [1]. BICS (BICost Scalable) Flash used explicit process cost reduction based on depositing and etching multiple layers at once, avoiding multiple lithography steps. This strategy replaced the usual approach… Read More


Application-Specific Lithography: 20nm Flash, 3D XPoint, 3D NAND Bit Lines

Application-Specific Lithography: 20nm Flash, 3D XPoint, 3D NAND Bit Lines
by Fred Chen on 08-10-2020 at 6:00 am

Application Specific Lithography SemiWiki

Nonvolatile memory capacity reached 64 Gb levels when NAND Flash half-pitch reached 20 nm [1]. Having reached 14 nm [2], NAND Flash half-pitch is no longer being reduced, now that it has entered the 3D era. However, recently, 3D XPoint has found applications within the Optane platform [3]. The lithography for patterning 20 nm half-pitch… Read More


Feature-Selective Etching in SAQP for Sub-20 nm Patterning

Feature-Selective Etching in SAQP for Sub-20 nm Patterning
by Fred Chen on 06-02-2020 at 10:00 am

Feature Selective Etching in SAQP for Sub 20 nm Patterning

Self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) is the most widely available technology used for patterning feature pitches less than 38 nm, with a projected capability to reach 19 nm pitch. It is actually an integration of multiple process steps, already being used to pattern the fins of FinFETs [1] and 1X DRAM [2]. These steps, shown… Read More


Lithography Resolution Limits: Line End Gaps

Lithography Resolution Limits: Line End Gaps
by Fred Chen on 05-01-2020 at 6:00 am

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In a previous article [1], the Rayleigh criterion was mentioned as the resolution limit for the distance between two features. On the other hand, in a following article [2], the minimum pitch was mentioned for the resolution limit for arrayed features. In this article, we reconcile the two by considering gaps between arrayed features,… Read More


Lithography Resolution Limits – Arrayed Features

Lithography Resolution Limits – Arrayed Features
by Fred Chen on 04-17-2020 at 6:00 am

Lithography Resolution Limits Arrayed Features

State-of-the-art chips will always include some portions which are memory arrays, which also happen to be the densest portions of the chip. Arrayed features are the main targets for lithography evaluation, as the feature pitch is well-defined, and is directly linked to the cost scaling (more features per wafer) from generation… Read More


Changes Coming at the Top in Semiconductor Equipment Ranking

Changes Coming at the Top in Semiconductor Equipment Ranking
by Robert Castellano on 12-10-2018 at 12:00 pm

Semiconductor equipment vendor ranking, which didn’t change much between 2016 and 2017, is undergoing a makeover, as Lam Research, ASML, and Tokyo Electron (TEL) are switching places and top-ranked Applied Materials is getting closer to losing its number one ranking.

Since the 1990s, Applied Materials has been the market leader… Read More


Translating Intel

Translating Intel
by Scotten Jones on 01-28-2015 at 10:00 pm

Some of Intel’s technology posts make some pretty specific statements and I have seen a number of posts where people seem to have misinterpreted what Intel was actually saying.

Multi Patterning
I have seen a lot of confusion on this one with some people saying Intel didn’t use multi patterning at 22nm and others saying Intel used … Read More


10nm, the View from IBM

10nm, the View from IBM
by Paul McLellan on 10-05-2014 at 7:01 am

On the Cadence booth at DAC, Lars Liebmann of IBM presented on the challenges of 10nm. As he put it, how the lithography folks are keeping things very interesting for the EDA tool development engineers. Although 14nm/16nm hasn’t yet ramped into HVM, the advanced work for tools and IP has all moved to 10nm. Although Lars gave… Read More


Triple Patterning

Triple Patterning
by Paul McLellan on 03-19-2014 at 1:00 pm

As you can’t have failed to notice by now, 28nm is the last process node that does not require double patterning. At 20nm and below, at least some layers require double patterning. The tightest spacing is typically not the transistors but the local interconnect and, sometimes, metal 1.


In the litho world they call double patterning… Read More


The Rosetta Stone of Lithography

The Rosetta Stone of Lithography
by Paul McLellan on 11-20-2013 at 3:14 pm

At major EDA events, CEDA (the IEEE council on EDA, I guess you already know what that bit stands for) hosts a lunch and presentation for attendees and others. This week was ICCAD and the speaker was Lars Liebmann of IBM on The Escalating Design Impact of Resolution-Challenged Lithography. Lars decided to give us a whirlwind tour … Read More