Protocol in Depth – Ethernet

Protocol in Depth – Ethernet
by Luigi Filho on 09-20-2020 at 6:00 am

Protocol in Depth Ethernet

Many times i notice people “kind of afraid” of some protocol, trying to avoid the usage because “it’s complicated”, I decide to go in-depth in one and show that maybe it’s not so complicated after all. First challenge is choosing the protocol and decide about the Ethernet, because this protocol… Read More


PCI Express in Depth – Transaction Layer

PCI Express in Depth – Transaction Layer
by Luigi Filho on 09-06-2020 at 7:00 am

PCI Express in Depth Transaction Layer

In the last article i write about the Data Link Layer, in this article i’ll write about the Transaction Layer.

This layer’s primary responsibility is to create PCI Express request and completion transactions. It has both transmit functions for outgoing transactions, and receive functions for incoming transactions.… Read More


PCI Express in Depth – Data Link Layer

PCI Express in Depth – Data Link Layer
by Luigi Filho on 09-06-2020 at 6:00 am

PCI Express in Depth Data Link Layer

In the last article, i wrote about the physical layer, now let’s take a look in the next layer the data link layer.

The Data Link Layer serves as the “gatekeeper” for each individual link within a PCI Express system. It ensures that the data being sent back and forth across the link is correct and received in the same order it

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Protocol in Depth – USB

Protocol in Depth – USB
by Luigi Filho on 08-30-2020 at 10:00 am

Protocol in Depth USB

The USB protocol is a very complex protocol, so there is no way i can explain every detail in a post, but i can let much more easy to understand what happens in a bit level.

There isn’t much good material for easy understand about USB, so i made some assumptions for make easier explain everything. In this post i’ll explain… Read More


PCI Express in Depth – Physical Layer

PCI Express in Depth – Physical Layer
by Luigi Filho on 08-23-2020 at 10:00 am

PCI Express in Depth Physical Layer

In the last article, I wrote about the PCIe basic concepts. This article will reach the physical layer of the PCIe standard.

The lowest PCI Express architectural layer is the Physical Layer. This layer is responsible for actually sending and receiving all the data to be sent across the PCI Express link. The Physical Layer interacts… Read More


PCI Express in Depth

PCI Express in Depth
by Luigi Filho on 08-23-2020 at 8:00 am

PCI Express in Depth

This is another post that was requested by a user, and as always i’ll do my best to put in a few articles the basic information that you’ll need to understand how it works at depth level.

PCI Express (or PCIe) is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X and AGP standards.

The first… Read More