There is growing awareness that EUV lithography is actually an imaging technique that heavily depends on the distribution of secondary electrons in the resist layer [1-5]. The stochastic aspects should be traced not only to the discrete number of photons absorbed but also the electrons that are subsequently released. The electron… Read More
To the general public, EUV lithography’s resolution can be traced back to its short wavelengths (13.2-13.8 nm), but the true printed resolution has always been affected by the stochastic behavior of the electrons released by EUV absorption [1-5].
A 0.33 NA EUV system is expected to have a diffraction-limited point spread… Read More
Stochastic defects continue to draw attention in the area of EUV lithography. It is now widely recognized that stochastic issues not only come from photon shot noise due to low (absorbed) EUV photon density, but also the resist material and process factors [1-4].
It stands to reason that resist absorption of EUV light, which is … Read More
The 5nm foundry node saw the arrival of 6-track standard cells with four narrow routing tracks between wide power/ground rails (Figure 1a), with minimum pitches of around 30 nm . The routing tracks require cuts  with widths comparable to the minimum half-pitch, to enable the via connections to the next metal layer with the… Read More
In this article, we will explore the use of self-aligned litho-etch-litho-etch (SALELE) double patterning for BEOL metal layers in the 7nm node (40 nm minimum metal pitch ) with DUV, and 5nm node (28 nm minimum metal pitch ) with EUV. First, we mention the evidence that this technique is being used; Xilinx  disclosed the… Read More
I recently posted an insightful article  published in 2013 on the cost of 3D NAND Flash by Dr. Andrew Walker, which has since received over 10,000 views on LinkedIn. The highlight was the plot of cost vs. the number of layers showing a minimum cost for some layer number, dependent on the etch sidewall angle. In this article, the same… Read More
For the 10nm – 5nm nodes, the leading-edge foundries are designing cells which utilize 6 or 7 metal tracks, entailing a wide metal line for every 4 or 5 minimum width lines, respectively (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Left: a 7-track cell. Right: a 6-track cell.
This is a fundamental vulnerability for lithography, as defocus can change… Read More