It was 1976 when distinguished scholars Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman published the first practical method of establishing a shared secret-key over an authenticated communications channel without using a prior shared secret. The Diffie-Hellman methodology became known as Public Key Infrastructure or PKI.
That was a long time ago. Do you even remember 1976? If you’re over the age of 50 you likely recall some things about this era, but if you’re under 40, your knowledge of the ‘70s is probably stuff you’ve seen on television or read in history books.
In 1976 the USA average annual income was $16,000, gas was $0.39 a gallon, and the median price for a new home was $43,600. In the world of technology, Steven Jobs and Wozniak formed the Apple Computer Company and months later, Bill Gates registered Microsoft with the Office of the Secretary of the State of New Mexico. Matsushita launched VHS video recorders, and the first commercially-developed supercomputer – the Cray 1 – was installed in the US at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
In 1976, the Internet didn’t exist, at least not in the way that it does today. There were no personal computers, no mobile phones – and of course no smartphones, It was a largely electro-mechanical, analogue world that was on the cusp of experiencing what over time was dubbed “the digital revolution.”
A technology guru who had gone into a deep sleep in 1976 only to awaken 42 years later would be shocked by the massive technological advances that have forever changed our planet. The guru would see a connected world with close to four billion Internet users, five billion mobile phones, and myriad applications that render global communication instantaneous. He or she would see a world with billions of connected things, with millions being added daily, extending well beyond consumer products to mission-critical business and government infrastructure. The 70’s guru would see that the very pillars of civilized society – nations’ energy grids, financial systems, and national security networks– all deeply ingrained and reliant on our connected world. And he’d also see a connected world constantly under attack by cyber criminals. He’d see the average cost of a data breach was $3.62m in 2017. He’d see nations under constant siege as enemy states and others work tirelessly to hack and destroy the digital foundation upon which we rely so heavily.
The world today would surely stun our tech guru, but what would absolutely shock him would to learn that virtually every person, place and thing on the planet, and every mission critical application is protected by 1970’s technology! PKI. And remarkably, enterprises and governments worldwide were paying an average $75/year total cost of ownership for each PKI-“protected” cryptographic unit (CU).
It begs the question, “how could our world have achieved so much in the way of technical advancement, without addressing the issue that can bring everything down?”
I won’t drone on about the perils of PKI – not the protocol, per se, but the vulnerabilities that a world full of fake and unrevoked certificates has created – but if you want to learn more I suggest you read Lipstick on the Digital Pig. What I do want to highlight is how one country – Singapore – is tackling the problem head on through an exciting initiative called Project GRACE.
A Tectonic Shift in Digital Security
I love the term “tectonic shift.” Its origins are rooted in geographic descriptions of the 15 or so tectonic plates that comprise the Earth’s crust. They are constantly moving, and when they move more dramatically, bad things happen – like earthquakes.
In the world of business, tectonic shifts are usually defined by the emergence of new technology that completely alters the landscape. Consider the tectonic shift from analogue to digital technology, which eliminated complete industries and ushered in the dawn of a new era. Apple, for example, obliterated the portable, personal music listening industry (remember the 1970s “Walkman?”) when it introduced the IPod.
The Government of Singapore – which is ranked #1 in the world in the IAC International E-Government rankings – is leading the way by creating a tectonic shift in digital security. Through Project GRACE, it will completely eliminate the many threats posed by PKI by completely erasing the dated Diffie-Hellman scheme from its digital equation.
GRACE has been entered in the co-sponsored US NIST and Homeland Security 2018 Global City Teams Challenge, an event which this year is focused on Cybersecurity. The GRACE initiative is described as follows:
“The present Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is known to be inadequate for the current scale of the Internet and the situation is exacerbated with the advent of IoT. Project GRACE (Graceful Remediation with Authenticated Certificateless Encryption) implements a security architecture using an advanced form of pairing-based cryptography called Verifiable Identity-based Encryption (VIBE) to provide a simple, scalable and secure key management for the cloud services, the IoT and indeed the Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) which are otherwise vulnerable to the extant and new cyber-physical attacks.”
One of the partners in GRACE, the University of Glasgow, is the lead agent in a city project to secure all smart meters over public wi-fi networks using the certificateless approach (i.e. no PKI) inherent in GRACE.
GRACE is led by Singapore-based QuantumCeil which describes the projects deliverables, as follows:
- Provide a simple scheme where it is difficult to commit errors of implementation.
- Provide a scalable scheme to address very large networks (centralized, distributed or mesh – billions of entities) at a great reduction in complexity – O(N) over PKI – complexity O(N2).
- Provide a secure scheme rooted in hardware with counter-measures against the crippling side-channel attacks [author’s note: this eliminates threats due to critical hardware vulnerabilities in modern processors, such as those exposed inMeltdown and Spectre].
The time has come for our connected world to migrate from PKI and embrace security technology and cryptographic schemes designed in this era for this era.
I just sent a text to the 1976 technology guru. He agrees. Do you?
p.s. the GRACE system and its operation are certifiable to ISO 27001:2013.