Solar panels - China, far and away
Nuclear Power Plants - Russia, France is up there
EV Batteries - China
EV vehicle production - China, by a lot
AI SW & HW - Hmmm... China has had some impressive results, but so has the US and Israel
Memory production - Korea
Ship building - definitely Korea
Smart phones - China for mechanical assembly, the US and Korea for design
5G - Unclear, though IP in the standards group points to China. Which is a bit amusing, considering China's policies regarding other country's IP
Space exploration - US, for decades, though US manned programs are becoming less important (Which I agree with. Human space travel is silly.)
Car manufacturing - by what measure? In production volume, China
Supercomputers - China is arguably a leader, though only for internal use
So 5/12, 6/12 if we count the auto industry by volume. Did I get anything woefully incorrect?
Some times massive subsidies work, some times don't.
In the mainland, you could've gotten 3 million USD just for having word "solar" in the name of the company around a decade ago. Of course, the level of graft, and abuse was immense. But in the end, most survivors after the party was over managed to dominate the market.
BOE took decades living off government subsidies to eventually become self-sufficient.
On other hand — flash, DRAM, mid-tier semi fabricators who lived off subsidies ALL failed.